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I haven't checked the manuals for T or Scheme but it was certainly the
intent that the list passed to APPLY is unrelated to the list that a
rest-parameter gets bound to. The rest-list should always be freshly
consed, so e.g. the procedure LIST is equivalent to (LAMBDA X X). The
last argument to APPLY must be a proper list. I think Common Lisp takes
the same stance.
A quick scan of the Common Lisp book leaves the question unresolved;
maybe Guy Steele could comment.
This question came up recently on the Common-Lisp mailing list. The
unofficial consensus, as I understood it, was that the book is vague on
this point and requires correcting; that the last argument to APPLY
should be a proper list; and that a list passed as an argument to APPLY
might or might not share list structure with an eventual &REST argument
resulting from the application.